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Old 08-04-2010, 11:09 PM
Aaishah Aaishah is offline
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Default What is mabniyy, mu'rab, marfuu', mansuub, majruur?

Assalaamu ‘alaikum Brothers and Sisters,

I would like to discuss the terms mabniyy, mu’rab, marfuu’, manSuub and majruur in the Madinah Book 2 forum (in simple terms) inshaa Allaah.

The reason for this is that although the terms are dealt with extensively in Madinah Book 3, some Book 2 students have asked questions related to these terms.

The terms and what they apply to, are a very important aspect of grammatical analysis. Correct understanding of them, will help us analyse the roles of nouns and verbs correctly, inshaa Allaah.

A questioner asked about the following noun of inna :

إِنَّهُ

How do we analyse the Damiir الْهَاءُ here since as a Damiir, it is mabniyy, yet it is also ismu-inna.

And we know ismu-inna is manSuub ?

So is it possible to describe al-haa here as manSuub?

---------------------------------

Following are notes to elaborate as well as giving beginners, an introduction to the aforesaid terms:

مَبْنِيٌّ :

A mabniyy refers to a noun or verb whose end-vowel mark is fixed on a particular sign (حَرَكَةٌ ).

So if it is fixed on a Dammah – like the above pronoun in : إِنَّهُ
then its ending will not change to another vowel-mark such as fatHah or kasrah- regardless of its grammatical role.

Here above, al-haa is the ism of inna yet it has not changed to a fatHah.

This is because it is a pronoun.

And pronouns in Arabic are mabniyy.

What then is mabniyy?

Quote : ------------

مَبْنِيٌّ :

(grammatically) : noun or verb with fixed endings, like :

هَؤُلاَءِ

(noun)

يَكْتُبْنَ

(verb)

end quote ----------------------

Ref: pg 24 from :
“A Glossary of Terms Used In Duruus al-Lughah al-‘Arabiyyah : Arabic-English Dictionary”
by Dr. V. Abdur Rahim

So all the pronouns in Arabic, like :

هَا
هُمْ
هُنَّ
نَا
هُوَ
هِيَ

Are mabniyy.

Quote : ------------

‘The following groups [of nouns] are indeclinable,
مَبْنِيٌّ:

1. The pronouns :الضَّمَائِرُ .

Like :

هُوَ
أَنْتَ
أَنَا


* Likewise, tu and hu in:

رَأَيْتُهُ

‘I saw him’

tu and hu are pronouns.

* Also ka in :

كِتَابُكَ

‘your book’,

* And haa in :

بَيْتُهَا

‘her house’

ka and haa are pronouns.

End quote ---------- ref : Madinah Book 3, Key to lesson 1
.

So a mabniyy noun - a noun whose ending is fixed on a particular harakah - cannot be analysed as :

مَرْفُوعٌ، مَنْصُوبٌ، مَجْرُورٌ.


The reason for this, will be clear when we read the meanings of marfuu’ manSuub and majruur :

Quote : --------------


مَرْفُوعٌ :

(grammatically : ) a noun or mudaari’ verb with the primary case-ending :

Dammah (-u),

or its equivalent secondary ending.

مَنْصُوبٌ :

(grammatically : ) a noun or mudaari’ verb in a state of نَصْبٌ .

:نَصْبٌ one of the three states of a noun or mudaari’ verb in which they take فَتْحَةٌ as the primary ending. [-a]

e.g. : أُرِيدُ أنْ أَحْفَظَ القرآنَ.

:

مَجْرُورٌ

(grammatically : ) a noun with kasrah as the primary ending ( -i ).

End quote --------- pg 83, 36, 215 from:

Shaykh Abdur Rahim’s : “Glossary of Terms”

So a mabniyy noun cannot be marfuu’, manSuub or majruur because its condition is such, that it does not have the ability to change to a Dammah, fatHah, or kasrah.

But when a noun can actually change its ending, (or support a latent ending) in order to indicate its grammatical role, - then the noun is termed :

marfuu’
( as it took – u ending, )
manSuub ( as it took – a ending)
majruur ( as it took -i ending.)

The type of noun that behaves like this, is ism mu’rab :

What is ism mu'rab?

Quote pg 41 from our Shaykh’s "Glossary of Terms" : -----------


مُعْرَبٌ :

(grammatically) : a noun that changes its endings to indicate its function in the sentence.

e.g. :

دَخَلَ الْوَلَدُ
سَأَلْتُ الْْوَلَدَ
ذَهَبْتُ إِلَى الْوَلَدِ


As opposed to مَبْنِيٌّ which does not change its endings.

e.g.:

دَخَلَ هَؤُلاَءِ
سَأَلْْتُ هَؤُلاَءِ
ذَهَبْتُ إلى هَؤُلاَءِ


End quote----------

Finally, I will bring a mabniyy noun and give it the same grammatical role as a mu’rab noun in sentences similar to the above.

To give a mabniyy noun the same grammatical role as a mu’rab one, simply means I write the mabniyy noun, in the same place as the marfuu/manSuub/majruur noun would normally be in.

Like this:

دَخَلَ الطُّلاَبُ
= دَخَلَ هَؤُلاَءِ


Here, هَؤُلاَءِ is in the place of the marfuu’ noun.

So هَؤُلاَءِ is analysed as:

faa’il, in the place of a marfuu’ noun.

In Arabic :

الْْفاَعِلُ : في مَحَلِّ رَفْعٍ

سَأَلْتُ الْْوَلَدَ
= سَأَلْتُهُ

Here الْهَاءُ is the place of the manSuub noun.

So al-haa here is analysed as:

Maf’uul bi-hii, in the place of a manSuub noun.


In Arabic:

الْْْمَفْعُولُ بِهِ : في مَحَلِّ نَصْبٍ.

هذا الْكِتَابُ لِشَيْخِ اللُّغَةِ الْْعَرَبِيَّةِ
= هذا الْكِتَابُ لِشَيْخِناَ


Here the pronoun naa, is in the place of the majruur noun which is also muDaaf ilayhi.

So naa is analysed as:

muDaaf ilayhi : in the place of a majruur noun.


In Arabic:

الْمُضَافُ إِلَيْهِ : في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ.


I hope these notes containing beneficial quotes, will be useful to us - students and teachers alike inshaa Allaah.

Wassalaam


Last edited by Aaishah; 08-05-2010 at 04:38 PM.
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Old 08-06-2010, 04:05 PM
Aaishah Aaishah is offline
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Posts: 359
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Part 2

Simple Application of the Terms:
marfuu’, manSuub, majruur
& fii maHalli raf/naSb/jarr,
in Sentence Analysis:


Examples :

1) marfuu’ or fii maHalli raf’ :

1. دَخَلَ الشَّيْخُ.

الشَّيْخُ = الْفَاعِلُ : مَرْفُوعٌ.

2. دَخَلَ هَذَا

هَذَا = الْفَاعِلُ : في مَحَلِّ رَفْعٍ.

3. دَرَسَ الطُّلاَّبُ الْقُرْآنَ.

الطُّلاَّبُ = الْفَاعِلُ : مَرْفُوعٌ.

4. دَرَسْنَا الْقُرْآنَ.

نَاْ = الْْْفَاعِلُ : في مَحَلِّ رَفْْْعٍ.

5. الْْْقُرْآنُ كَلاَمُ اللهِ.

الْْْقُرْآنُ = الْمُبْتَدَأُ : مَرْفُوعٌ.

6. هُوَ كَلاَمُ اللهِ.

هُوَ = الْمُبْتَدَأُ : في مَحَلِّ رَفْعٍ.


b) manSuub or fii maHalli naSb :

1. سَأَلْنَا الشَّيْخَ.

الشَّيْخَ = الْْمَفْعُولُ بِهِ : مَنْصُوبٌ.

2. سَأَلْنَا هَذَا.

هذا = الْمَفْْعُولُ بِهِ : في مَحَلِّ نَصْبٍ.

3. حَفِظْنَا جَوَابَ الشَّيْخِ.

جَوَابَ = الْمَفْعُولُ بِهِ : مَنْصُوبٌ.

4. حَفِظْنَاهُ.

الْهَاءُ = الْمَفْعُولُ بِهِ : في مَحَلِّ نَصْبٍ.

5. إِنَّ لُغَةَ الْْقُرْآنِ سَهْلَةٌ.

لُغَةَ = اسْمُ (إِنَّ) : مَنْصُوبٌ.

6. إِنَّهَا سَهْلَةٌ.

هَاْ = اسْمُ (إِنَّ) : في مَحَلِّ نَصْبٍ.


c) majruur or fii maHalli jarr :

1. ذَهَبْنَا إِلَى الْْْمَدِينَةِ.

الْْْمَدِينَةِ = مَجْرُورٌ.

2. ذَهَبْنَا إِلَيْهَا.

هَاْْ = في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ.

3. جَلَسْنَا في الْمَسْجِدِ.

الْمَسْجِدِ = مَجْرُورٌ.

4. جَلَسْنَا فِيهِ.

الْهَاءُ = في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ.

5. اللَّهُمَّ ارْزُقْنَا مِنَ الإِيْمَانِ !

الإِيْمَانِ = مَجْرُورٌ.

6. اللَّهُمَّ ارْزُقْنَا مِنْهُ !

الْْهَاءُ = في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ.



-----end notes----


Last edited by Aaishah; 08-06-2010 at 04:11 PM.
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